Oil and Gas Discovery

Sep 11, 2021

World’s Oil Fields

Let’s analyze the dataset. The important information that we have in this dataset is Field name, Country of location, an average location (Latitude & Longitude), Type of the hydrocarbon trap, Reservoir lithology, Era, Reservoir depth (in KMs), discovery year etc.

Based on the size of these fields, we try to visualize the proportion of Giant, Megagiant and Supergiant fields throughout the world.

The country wise distribution of hydrocarbon fields is an indicator of its contribution to world’s total oil production. Russia has the largest number of oil fields followed by USA, Iran and Saudi Arabia.

The proprtion of oil and gas fields out of total hydrocarbon fields can give us an idea of the type of hydrocarbon reserves surplus in individual countries.

Alas! Saudi Arabai does have most of the biggest oil fields in the world.

The highest number of supergiant fields are present in Russia followed by Iran and Saudi Arabia.

Most of the world’s giant oil fields are present in Russia and the United States.

Structural traps (Anticline, fault blocks or salts) definately dominate in having the highest hydrocarbon reserves as they are dominant in all the giant, supergiant and the megagiant fields. They are closely followed by stratigraphic traps.

Giant, Supergiant and Megagiant fields have their hydrocarbons trapped dominantly by anticlines, closely followed by faults. Other traps have lesser contribution.

The clastic brothers-Sandstone and Carbonate are the dominant reservoir lithologies as expected.

The HISTORY of Discoveries:

Let's loon at the times when mankind was at peaks and lows of discovering the black gold.

The hydrocarbon discoveries had been a consistent thing till 1950s, however peak of discoveries was reached through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s probably due to the advent of high quality 3D seismic survey and other technologies.

The onshore discoveries had peaked between 1930s through 1980s.

The offshore discoveries had peaked around the later part of the century (1970s through 2000s) due to the advancement of marine seismic acquisition technologies.

How much Oil? Let’s look at the distribution of estimated ultimate recoveries of the oilfields according to their size.

Text(0.5, 1.0, 'Estimated Ultimate Recovery for Megagiant Fields (MMBOE)')

The numbers for Megagiant and Supergiant fields essentially dwarf the ones for Giant fields, on an average respectively being almost 10 & 100 folds to that of Giant fields.

How Deep? let’s look the depth distributions of Oil and gas formations deposited during different geological times.

The deepest reservoirs go upto 12KMs!

The Maps! The Folium package gives us tools to generate interactive maps. Let’s plot the location of the hydrocarbon fields found world wide.

The Circles represent the location of the hydrocarbon fields. Red=> Gas, Green=> Oil. The cicles’ radii represent the size of the fields.